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Murena on a charge of ambitus late in 63 B. The most difficult aspect of that challenge is certainly the handling of Cato. In view of the lavish bribery in the consular elections, he had promised that he would prosecute the briber, whoever he might be.
As a subscriptor speaking last for the prosecution, Cato brought the full moral weight of his Stoic beliefs and his ancestral tradition to bear against Murena. He even cited Cato the Censor as his inspiration None of this could secure Murena's conviction, however, since Cato's best efforts to minimize the apparent I The most thorough and useful analysis of the speech is A.
Also, see the fine introduction to Boulanger's Bude edition. Zumpt BerlinG. Heitland Cambridgeand J. Hereafter, the works mentioned above will be referenced by the authors' last names. I have been unable to obtain the commentary of Halm Berlin and subsequent editions. So Cicero's quotation of Cato at section 62, "Dixi in senatu me nomen consularis candidati delaturum," and Plut.
Craig Catilinarian danger failed to convince the jury. In the end, the iudices felt that Murena's guilt or innocence was not the primary concern; a guilty verdict would endanger the state.
He could make clear to the jury that an acquittal would bring upon them the stigma of having disregarded justice and of holding in contempt the traditional Roman values for which he spoke. Cicero, speaking last for the defense 48 ' has the special task of neutralizing this strong moral censure.
His duty is complicated by the need to avoid offending Cato, who is a valuable political ally at this critical time. Cicero's solution to this problem is the well-known lampooning of Cato's Stoicism Cato's action is taken to be the result of his training in an unrealistic philosophy.
As Quintilian notes with admiration, Cato cannot be offended at this; the philosophy, not the man, is held to be at fault. Modern scholars, in turn, admire, but find little need to analyze, the humor with which Cicero shows Cato to be unreaiistic. I agree with the communis opinio that Cicero succeeds, in sectionsin deflating Cato's power of censure by making the young Stoic's behavior seem ridiculously unrealistic.
I also agree with Leeman's astute observation in his discussion of Cicero's treatment of the charges in sections that " Cicero could only venture on such an almost ludicrous defense, because he had established a kind of understanding with the jury.
Nemo illorum iudicum clarissimis viris accusantibus audiendum sibi de ambitu putavit, cum bellum iam gerente Catilina omnes me auctore duos consules Kalendis Ianuariis scirent esse oportere.
Quintilian Cato's argument that Cicero exaggerated the Catilinarian danger is inferred from section 79, "Quaeris a me ecquid Catilinam metuam. Ayers and Kennedy seem to accept completely Cicero's portrait of Cato as a man more concerned with morality than with expediency in this time of real danger for the state.
Kumaniecki seems to agree with Cato that Cicero exaggerated the danger as part of his persuasive strategy.
Leeman believes that Cicero certainly used the supposed danger as a lever, but that he was so overwrought by the events of his consulship that he himself believed that the Catilinarian threat was substantial.
The views of these latter two scholars are more attractive: Cato would not have argued that the danger from Catiline should be discounted unless there were some good grounds for this view.Free essys, homework help, flashcards, research papers, book report, term papers, history, science, politics.
Rhetorical Strategies of Identity-Construction in Juvenal's Satire VI and Cicero's Catiline Orations Christine Harrison In Satire VI and In Catilinam I and II, Juvenal and Cicero both make attacks on their enemies' personal conduct to construct a Roman identity while appealing to "Roman values.".
Term paper Service rutadeltambor.com The complexity of love and hate in romeo and juliet a play by william shakespeare; Fall paper plates. 'O tempora! O mores!' Cicero's Catilinarian orations: a student edition with historical essays.
Norman: University of Oklahoma press. There seems to be no philological analysis of the first Catilinarian in English, but there are two useful analyses in French and German: Bornecque, Henri.
Les "Catilinaires" de Cicéron: étude et analyse. Paris: Mellottée. "Redemptive Identification: Cicero's Catilinarian Orations." Explorations in Rhetorical Criticism. Eds. G.
P. Mohrmann et al. University Park: Penn State UP, "The Topics of Argumentative Invention in Latin Rhetorical Theory from Cicero to Boethius." Rhetorica 1 . Download "Cato's Stoicism and the Understanding of Cicero's Speech for Murena".