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The first three include information on the LEV system in addition to exposure measurements and are classified based on industry type. The first section presents material specific to the construction industry; the second contains studies thought to be relevant to construction, such as shipbuilding; and the third group is all other industries.
The fourth and final major group contains only qualitative information on the LEV system, i. Data in this final section are less helpful in reaching conclusions about factors that influence the effectiveness of LEV in the field but do document exposure reductions. The last two sections are further divided into two subparts: A variety of different statistics are reported in the different publications and the data are reported here as they were in the cited papers.
LEV-welding studies in construction Specific studies of welding fume exposures in the construction industry that assess the effectiveness of LEV are limited, with only four identified here.
In a field study, Susi et al.
Intwo different local exhaust systems were used: The mean TP exposure when local exhaust was used was 1. For boilermakers and ironworkers, there was no LEV, only mechanical ventilation, and the results were mixed depending upon the degree of enclosure.
The welding was done by three different welders in a semi-enclosed tank outside the building. Flat welds were conducted on a 9-inch 23 cm long flat piece of steel base plate supported on workhorses in the tank. The system had a recommended hood flow of — cfm 0.
Neither LEV was equipped with a filter; however, exhaust was discharged via flex duct to the outside of the tank. The hoods were placed 3 inches 7. Measurements of capture velocities were made for each unit at 6, 9, and 12 inches The results are presented below by unit.
No hood flow was indicated. The measured capture velocities were60, and 30 fpm 0. The measured capture velocities were, and 50 fpm 1. The researchers noticed a tendency of welder 2 to be consistently positioned outside of the plume, while welder 1 was often in the plume; as expected, welder 1 had significantly higher exposures.
The researchers also indicated that wind may have diminished the LEV performance; air currents of 20—40 fpm 0.Research paper. Salinity tolerance of three Salix species: Survival, LEV D3: 2: 46° 78′ the percentage yield decrease per unit salinity increase. In fact, for DIS and ERI, it would appear that the MST exceeded the salinity threshold.
In terms of survival, the salinity threshold point for INT lies somewhere between the MST and HST. Policy Research Unit, The Sussex Energy Group, Jubilee Building, University of Sussex, BN1 9RH, United Kingdom c School ofSocial and Political Science, University Edinburgh, S1 Chisholm House.
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