Nicknamed the American Gentleman for his kind and gentle disposition, the Boston terrier, is a smooth, short-coated, compactly built dog with beautiful colours- red brindle, black brindle, or black, with white markings. The Boston Terrier is a relatively healthy breed requiring little grooming and maintenance, but it is susceptible to certain hereditary skin problems. A minor problem affecting its coat is a gradually spreading baldness that is sometimes found in female Boston terriers at about six months of age.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes.
Knowledge on traditional repellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies is a valuable resource for the development of new natural products. There is a need for further standardized studies in order to better evaluate repellent compounds and develop new products that offer high repellency as well as good consumer safety.
This paper presents a summary of recent information on testing, efficacy and safety of plant-based repellents as well as promising new developments in the field.
Background Most plants contain compounds that they use in preventing attack from phytophagous plant eating insects. These chemicals fall into several categories, including repellents, feeding deterrents, toxins, and growth regulators. Most can be grouped into five major chemical categories: Although the primary functions of these compounds is defence against phytophagous insects, many are also effective against mosquitoes and other biting Diptera, especially those volatile components released as a consequence of herbivory [ 1 ].
The fact that several of these compounds are repellent to haematophagous insects could be an evolutionary relict from a plant-feeding ancestor, as many of these compounds evolved as repellents to phytophagous insects [ 2 ], and this repellent response to potentially toxic compounds is well conserved in the lineage of Diptera True Flies.
Insects detect odours when that volatile odour binds to odorant receptor OR proteins displayed on ciliated dendrites of specialized odour receptor neurons ORNs that are exposed to the external environment, often on the antennae and maxillary palps of the insect, and some ORNs, such as OR83b that is important in olfaction and blocked by the gold-standard synthetic repellent DEET N, N-diethylmethylbenzamide [ 3 ], are highly conserved across insect species [ 45 ].
Interestingly, the same odour receptors that respond to DEET also respond to thujone eucalyptol and linalool in Culex quinquefasciatus[ 9 ]. However, it is most likely that many plant volatiles are deterrent or repellent because they have high vapour toxicity to insects [ 1112 ].
This repellency of plant material has been exploited for thousands of years by man, most simply by hanging bruised plants in houses, a practice that is still in wide use throughout the developing countries [ 13 ].Transcendentalism in American History.
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. editorial dept elephant journal Dec 16, pm. I like to call it "Extreme Yoga ~ Yoga on crack and Red Bull". I'm kidding, of course but I expect someone did or will do it eventually if we don't learn about the origin.
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