Early people of what is now the Philippines were skilled agriculturists. In addition, there were also large quantities of cotton and colored clothes, wax, honey, and date palms produced by the native peoples.
Mesoamerican civilization The term Mesoamerica denotes the part of Mexico and Central America that was civilized in pre-Spanish times. In many respects, the American Indians who inhabited Mesoamerica were the most advanced native peoples in the Western Hemisphere.
The northern border of Mesoamerica runs west from a point on the Gulf coast of Mexico above the modern port of Tampicothen dips south to exclude much of the central desert of highland Mexico, meeting the Pacific coast opposite the tip of Baja Lower California.
On the southeast, the boundary extends from northwestern Honduras on the Caribbean across to the Pacific shore in El Salvador. Geographically and culturally, Mesoamerica consists of two strongly contrasted regions: The Mexican highlands are formed mainly by the two Sierra Madre ranges that sweep down on the east and west.
Lying athwart them is a volcanic cordillera stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The high valleys and landlocked basins of Mexico were important centres of pre-Spanish civilization.
In the southeastern part of Mesoamerica lie the partly volcanic Chiapas—Guatemala highlands. The lowlands are primarily coastal. Agriculture in Mesoamerica was advanced and complex. A great many crops were planted, of which corn, beans, and squashes were the most important.
In the highlands, hoe cultivation of more or less permanent fields was the rule, with such intensive forms of agriculture as irrigation and chinampas the so-called floating gardens reclaimed from lakes or ponds practiced in some regions. In contrast, lowland agriculture was frequently of the shifting variety; a patch of jungle was first selected, felled and burned toward the end of the dry season, and then planted with a digging stick in time for the first rains.
After a few years of planting, the field was abandoned to the forest, as competition from weeds and declining soil fertility resulted in diminishing yields. In addition, terraces were constructed and employed for farming in some lowland regions. Nevertheless, the demographic potential for agriculture was probably always greater in the highlands than it was in the lowlands, and this was demonstrated in the more extensive urban developments in the former area.
The extreme diversity of the Mesoamerican environment produced what has been called symbiosis among its subregions. Interregional exchange of agricultural products, luxury items, and other commodities led to the development of large and well-regulated markets in which cacao beans were used for money.
It may have also led to large-scale political unity and even to states and empires. High agricultural productivity resulted in a nonfarming class of artisans who were responsible for an advanced stone architecture, featuring the construction of stepped pyramids, and for highly evolved styles of sculpture, pottery, and painting.
The Mesoamerican system of thought, recorded in folding-screen books of deerskin or bark paper, was perhaps of even greater importance in setting them off from other New World peoples.
The religious life was geared to this cycle, which is unique to them. The Mesoamerican pantheon was associated with the calendar and featured an old, dual creator god; a god of royal descent and warfare; a sun god and moon goddess; a rain god; a culture hero called the Feathered Serpent; and many other deities.
Also characteristic was a layered system of 13 heavens and nine underworlds, each with its presiding god. Much of the system was under the control of a priesthood that also maintained an advanced knowledge of astronomy.
Some seven Mesoamerican language families and three language isolates were found in Mesoamerica. Most Mesoamerican languages are grouped in one of four families: The Mayan family contains a number of mutually unintelligible languages, at least some of which were spoken by the inhabitants of the great Maya ceremonial centres.
The modern Mexican state of Oaxaca is now the centre of the heterogeneous Otomanguean phylum; but the only linguistic groups of that family that played a great part in Mesoamerican civilization were the Mixtec and Zapotecboth of which had large, powerful kingdoms at the time of the Spanish conquest.
Huave and Cuitlatec are also language isolates. Pre-Classic and Classic periods Early hunters to bce The time of the first peopling of Mesoamerica remains a puzzle, as it does for that of the New World in general. Until recently it was widely accepted that groups of peoples entered the hemisphere from northeastern Siberiaperhaps by a land bridge that then existed, at some time in the Late Pleistoceneor Ice Age.
But radiocarbon dating and other relatively recent tools have complicated the story. Perhaps they entered the West Coast from the sea at multiple points. There is abundant evidence that, at least by 11, bce, hunting peoples had occupied most of the New World south of the glacial ice cap covering northern North America.
These peoples hunted such large grazing mammals as mammothmastodonhorseand camelarmed with spears to which were attached finely made, bifacially chipped points of stone.Philipine Culture During Pre-Hispanic Period Huwebes, Marso 1, Bathala was the supreme god of the pre-Spanish Filipinos.
They attributed to Bathala the creation of the heavens, Earth, and man. cultural influences were inevitable. Many words in the Philippine language have Chinese origins. The Chinese also taught the ancient.
Nov 09, · Watch video · A country rich in history, tradition and culture, Mexico is made up of 31 states and one federal district. It is the third largest country in . Spanish Period The Spanish Period () was believed to have started during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Governor-General in the Philippines.
He was responsible for establishing peace with various indigenous tribes.
Spanish settlement in the Philippines first took place in the s, during the Spanish colonial period of the islands. The conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi founded the first Spanish settlement in Cebu in , and later established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies in During the Spanish colonial period, Intramuros was considered Manila itself.
PACO PARK Paco Park was once a cemetery during the Spanish period and was constructed in the late 18th century and was used to inter victims of the cholera epidemic which ravaged Manila in Filipino Culture Hindu Pre-contact period Before the Spanish period, the archipelagoes of Southeast Asia were under the influence of traders from the Hindu-Malayan culture, such as theMajapahit Empire, which was then supplanted by Islamic:D teaching by Muslims traders from Gujarat, India.