Ap biology transcription and translation essay

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Ap biology transcription and translation essay

Schimper would name these bodies as "chloroplastids" Chloroplastiden. They are considered to have originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis —when a eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthesizing cyanobacterium that became a permanent resident in the cell. Mitochondria are thought to have come from a similar event, where an aerobic prokaryote was engulfed.

Cyanobacterial ancestor Main article: Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria are considered the ancestors of chloroplasts. They are sometimes called blue-green algae even though they are prokaryotes.

They are a diverse phylum of bacteria capable of carrying out photosynthesisand are gram-negativemeaning that they have two cell membranes.

Cyanobacteria also contain a peptidoglycan cell wallwhich is thicker than in other gram-negative bacteria, and which is located between their two cell membranes.

Both the chloroplast and cyanobacterium depicted are idealized versions the chloroplast is that of a higher plant —a lot of diversity exists among chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. Primary endosymbiosis Primary endosymbiosis A eukaryote with mitochondria engulfed a cyanobacterium in an event of serial primary endosymbiosis, creating a lineage of cells with both organelles.

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The external cell is commonly referred to as the host while the internal cell is called the endosymbiont. It is now generally held that organisms with primary chloroplasts share a single ancestor that took in a cyanobacterium — million years ago.

All primary chloroplasts belong to one of four chloroplast lineages—the glaucophyte chloroplast lineage, the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora lineage, the rhodophyte red algal chloroplast lineage, or the chloroplastidan green chloroplast lineage.

Cyanobacteria The alga Cyanophoraa glaucophyteis thought to be one of the first organisms to contain a chloroplast. The starch that they synthesize collects outside the chloroplast.

Bornetia secundifloraPeyssonnelia squamariaCyanidiumLaurenciaCallophyllis laciniata. Red algal chloroplasts are characterized by phycobilin pigments which often give them their reddish color.

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ScenedesmusMicrasteriasHydrodictyonVolvoxStigeoclonium. Green algal chloroplasts are characterized by their pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which give them their green color.

The chloroplastidan chloroplasts, or green chloroplasts, are another large, highly diverse primary chloroplast lineage. Their host organisms are commonly known as the green algae and land plants. Chloroplastidan chloroplasts have lost the peptidoglycan wall between their double membrane, leaving an intermembrane space.

Green algae and plants keep their starch inside their chloroplasts, [14] [35] [38] and in plants and some algae, the chloroplast thylakoids are arranged in grana stacks.

Some green algal chloroplasts contain a structure called a pyrenoid[14] which is functionally similar to the glaucophyte carboxysome in that it is where RuBisCO and CO2 are concentrated in the chloroplast. Helicosporidium is a genus of nonphotosynthetic parasitic green algae that is thought to contain a vestigial chloroplast.

It is not clear whether that symbiont is closely related to the ancestral chloroplast of other eukaryotes.

Curriculum Connections:

Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host. These chloroplasts are known as secondary plastids. Diagram of a four membraned chloroplast containing a nucleomorph.In biology, transcription is the process whereby DNA is usedas a template to form a complementary RNA strand – RNA is the “written” form of DNA.

This is the first stage of protein production or the flow of information within a cell. [IB Biology SL at GHS: Reviews of Nucleic Acids] Potential Essay Exam Questions. Study the following questions to prepare for your exam.

Biology DNA protein synthesis study guide. | Free Essays - rutadeltambor.com

The answers provided by your classmates in class can be viewed by clicking on the "Answer" link. Explain how complementary base pairing is used in replication, transcription and translation.

[ More About X Inactivation.

Ap biology transcription and translation essay

As the cells of an early female embryo divide they randomely inactivate one of the two X chromosomes. By chance, some cells end up with an active X from their mother, and others the X chromosome they received from their father. There is a minute reading period sandwiched between the multiple-choice section and the free-response (essay) portion of the AP Biology exam.

Review 2, 3, and 4 chambered hearts, and their blood flow, advantages and disadvantages for essay (look at notes and packet) The essay has been cancelled this year!! AP BIOLOGY ANSWER KEY FOR 3B & 3C REVIEW SHEET.

Welcome to rutadeltambor.com We are going to continue our discussion of molecular genetics with the topics of transcription and translation Before we delve into the details, I am going to give you an overview of the process Recall that the central dogma of molecular biology is the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein .

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