The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space. The most obvious examples include Marxism as contained in the "classic" writings of Marx and others and the social structure that exists in the U.
This section is about the origin and evolution of the meanings of the expression "criticism". Early English meaning[ edit ] The English word criticism is derived from the French critique, which dates back to at least the 14th century. The words "critic" and "critical" existed in the English language from the midth century, and the word "criticism" first made its appearance in English in the early 17th century.
Related Greek terms are krinein separating out, decidingkrei- to sieve, discriminate, or distinguish and krisis literally, the judgement, the result of a trial, or a selection resulting from a choice or decision.
Crito is also the name of a pupil and friend of the Greek philosopher Socratesas well as the name of an imaginary dialogue about justice written by the philosopher Plato in the context of the execution of Socrates. The early English meaning of criticism was primarily literary criticismthat of judging and interpreting literature.
Samuel Johnson is often held as the prime example of criticism in the English language, and his contemporary Alexander Pope 's Essay on Criticism is a significant landmark.
In the course of the 17th century, it acquired the more general sense of censureas well as the more specialized meaning of the "discernment of taste", i.
To be critical meant, positively, to have good, informed judgement about matters of culture to be cultivated, to be a man or woman of distinctionbut negatively it could also refer to the unreasonable rejection or unfair treatment of some outside group "to be critical of them".
Derivatively, "a criticism" also referred to a nice point or a distinction, a tiny detail, a pedantic nicety, a subtlety, or a quibble the sense of what today is called a "minor criticism".
Often criticism was governed by very strict cultural rules of politeness, propriety and decency, and there could be immediate penalties if the wrong words were said or written down in 17th century England, more than half of men and about three-quarters of women could not read or write.
In the 19th century, criticism also gained the philosophical meaning of "a critical examination of the faculty of knowledge", particularly in the sense used by Immanuel Kant. See Oxford English Dictionary. Such criticism was carried out mainly by academic authorities, businessmen and men of property with the leisure to devote themselves to the pursuit of knowledge.
The shape and meanings of criticism were influenced considerably by wars including two world wars occurring almost continuously somewhere in the world. With the growth of specializations in the division of labourand the growth of tertiary educationinnumerable different branches of criticism emerged with their own rules and specialized technical meanings.
Philosophers such as Karl Popper and Imre Lakatos have popularized the idea that criticism is a normal part of scientific activity. Relatedly, "scientific criticism" has become a standard expression, just as much as "literary criticism".
Gradually it was accepted that criticism is a normal process in a democratic society, rather than a sign of inadequacy, or something that should be strictly controlled or repressed.
From the s onward, under the influence of neo-Marxismcritical theory and Michel Foucaultit became fashionable in the English-speaking academic social sciences and humanities to use the French word " critique ", instead of the ordinary "criticism".
The suggestion is that there is a difference between the two terms, but what exactly it is, is often not altogether clear. Often the connotation is that if a deliberation is a "critique" and not just a "criticism", then there is "a lot of extra thought and profound meaning" behind what is being said.
|Pacheco, C.||It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment.|
A "critique" in the modern sense is normally understood as a systematic criticism, a critical essay, or the critical appraisal of a discourse or parts of a discourse. Thus, many academic papers came to be titled or subtitled "a critique". From the s, English-speaking academics and journalists also began to use the word "critique" not only as a nounbut as a verb e.
What is often implied is, that "critiqueing" goes deeper into the issue, or is more complete, than "criticizing", possibly because the specialist criteria of a particular discipline are being applied.
In the contemporary sense, criticism is often more the expression of an attitude, where the object of criticism may only be vaguely defined. For example, somebody "unlikes" something on Facebook or "unfriends" somebody. In general, there is less money in literary criticism, while it has become easier for anyone to publish anything at a very low cost on the Internet — without necessarily being vetted through critically by others.
Professionally, "what it means to criticize" has become a much more specialized and technical matter, where "inside knowledge" is required to understand the criticism truly; this development is linked to the circumstance, that the right to criticize, or the propriety appropriate use of criticism, is regarded nowadays much more as depending on one's position, or on the context of the situation "I would like to say something, but I am not in a position to criticize".
Because many more people are able to travel to, or have contact with, worlds completely different from their own, new problems are created of how to relativize criticisms and their limitations, how to put everything into meaningful proportion.
This affects what a criticism is understood to be, or to mean, and what its overall significance is thought to be. Digital information technology and telecommunications have begun to change drastically the ways people have for getting attention, or for being taken seriously.
In turn, this has begun to change the ways people have for going about criticizing, and what criticism means for people.
With more possibilities for sophisticated expression, criticism has tended to become more "layered". Beneath the observable surface presentation of criticism, which is freely advertised, there are often additional layers of deeper criticism.
These are not directly accessible, because they require additional information, or insight into additional meanings. To gain access to the "whole story" about a criticism, and not just "part of the story", may be conditional on fulfilling certain entry requirements "if you don't have the ticket, you don't get the knowledge".
Together with the ability to make finer distinctions of meaning with the aid of digital equipment, the possibilities for ambiguity in criticism have increased: It can take more effort to unravel the full story. Classifications[ edit ] Criticism can be: Different kinds of criticisms can be distinguished as types using the following criteria:Continental Drift Theory:Building the Case.
In spite of all the criticism, Wegener was able to keep Continental Drift part of the discussion until his death. The best opinions, comments and analysis from The Telegraph.
The judger is called a critic.; To engage in criticism is to criticise (in British English – see American and British English spelling differences.); One specific item of criticism is called a criticism or critique.; Criticism is an evaluative or corrective exercise that can occur in any area of human life.
These are some of the many databases available to you as a member of Middletown Thrall Library: Artemis (now Gale Literary Sources) Searches the following databases (described below): Literature Criticism Online, Literature for Students, Literature Resource Center, and Something about the Author.
The thunder-and-lightning example seems like a bad comparison for this kind of situation, in that the false claim is (1) easily observable to be untrue, and (2) utterly useless to the society that propagates it.
[The following is a transcription of Igor Shafarevich's The Socialist rutadeltambor.com work was originally published in Russian in France under the title Sotsializm kak iavlenie mirovoi istorii in , by YMCA Press.
An English translation was subsequently published in by Harper & Row.